Helicopter (hovercraft)

It is a flying machine, it has the ability to rise from the ground with the help of the feathers fixed on its body, and it can rotate around itself in the air without having to move forward, and it can land and take off anywhere, without the need to use the runway as it happens In other aircraft, and for this reason, it can land in densely populated places or even on the roofs of buildings, and the German named (Anton Fltner) made the first helicopter, and that was in 1936 AD, and its name was (FL-185).

Uses of a helicopter

The helicopter is used in many works, which other aircraft cannot do, and we can summarize the uses of the helicopter as follows:


Performing some tasks that other aircraft are unable to, as they can take off and land vertically, without the need for a runway or a large area. It can also remain stationary in the air for a period of time. Used in construction cases. It is used to transport goods, especially large loads, and to transport them to tall buildings such as communication towers and air-conditioning units for large buildings. They are also used to transport firewood and wood, especially in areas where trucks cannot reach them, and in these cases aircraft called (aerial crane) are used. About a helicopter that has strong wires and is intended for weightlifting. It is also used to transport people (first aid), especially in emergency and urgent situations, which are difficult for emergency aid to reach, and this plane is called (air ambulance helicopter), and it is equipped with medical equipment and tools that work to rescue the patient, and the process of transporting patients from a place is called Infection (medical evacuation). It is used to aid in the construction of tall buildings. Fire fighting: where dedicated aircraft called (helicopters to deliver fire-fighting equipment) are used, and they carry water in tanks installed inside them that are filled by submerging it in any place where there is water, whether it is a river or sea, or it can be submerged in fresh water distribution trucks, as well as It has a hose that is used to draw water from anywhere. It is used in the military fields, to intensify the air attack against sites and ground targets, and it is also equipped with launchers and machine guns, as well as used to transport soldiers and supplies. It can be used to search for individuals, as the military and police use it to pursue suspects, and it is equipped with police communications on the ground, which helps them monitor the search, especially at night. Because it also contains optical and thermal detectors.

How to make a helicopter


The helicopter is made from a group of systems, and each system has a cycle and work, so the rotation system is the part that rotates around the helicopter to assist in the vertical lifting process, and this system is installed vertically to help raise the plane horizontally, or it is installed horizontally to help raise the plane in a manner my head.

This system contains the following:

1-Column or mast: It is a cylindrical metal that extends upwards and moves by means of a transmission.
2-Feathers or blades: and meet with the column or mast at the top, and this area is called (the axis).
3-The axis: it is the point of convergence of the column or the mast with the blades or blades, and there are three classifications for it, which are: (fixed, semi-fixed, and fully articulated).

Motors


Engines are the most important part of the plane, where the type of engine is determined according to the size of the plane and its characteristics, and these are the types of engines:

1-Gasoline engines: It is also used for remote-controlled aircraft.
2-Electric motors: used in unmanned aircraft, where they are powered by electric motors with batteries.
3-Jet tip engine: It is an old engine that was used only in helicopters and did not succeed, as a jet hose was placed at the tip of the blade, which leads to the thrust of the jet.
4-Turbine spindle motor: It is the most popular and widely used engine, as it is used in pilot-driven aircraft.
5-Nitromethane engine: It is an internal penetrating engine that uses nitromethane - methanol, and is used in aircraft that operate with remote control devices.

Control tools


The helicopter has four controls, which are:

1-The rotating stick: It is located between the legs of the pilot, and it is also called (the rotating stick). It is easy to move and wobble, and it was named by that name; Because it changes the oscillation and the rotor blades circularly.
2-Swing compound control: It is located on the left of the pilot's seat, and its function is that it changes the swing angle of all blades, and this leads to an increase or decrease in the height of the helicopter.
3-Anti-torque pedals: Its function is to regulate the direction of the plane's nose during flight, and work to prevent the swing of the tail rotor and change it mechanically, and that works to reduce the amount of thrust that arose from it.
4-Throttle fuel: Its function is that it controls the amount of fuel produced by the engine, and it works to maintain the engines power, so that the number of revolutions per minute remains constant. It is located on the arm of the complex.

Flight cases by helicopter

Hover
It is one of the dangerous situations that helicopters carry out. This is because the plane in this case produces its own wind, and it faces the general structure of it, and the controls that do this task are very simple, as the rotation tool is used to prevent the horizontal deviation of the plane, and the complex is used to maintain the planes altitude, while the pedals are used to maintain On the direction of the plane.

Front flight
They are similar to fixed-wing aircraft, as when the stick is moved forward, this causes the plane to swing down, which causes the speed to rise in the air and reduces the height, but if the rotating stick is moved backward, this causes the plane to swing down, This reduces speed and increases altitude. The pedals are used for the same function in helicopters and regular aircraft, which is to maintain flight stability.

The dangers faced by the helicopter


The helicopter is not without risks, as its unsafe operation can lead to loss of control of the aircraft, leading to its loss, and it can be summarized as follows:

1-Return blade collapse: This problem occurs due to the increase in speed.
2-Landing with propellers running: where they are unable to land.

3-Reduced acceleration power.
4-Mechanical Rotor Impact Failure: This is caused by poor thrust at the helicopter, or a mechanical fault.
5-Fear of crashing into trees or over hanging wires if the plane falls too low.
6-Ground resonance: as it negatively affects the helicopter.